How to well structure your Python scripts

1 min

Structuring your Python scripts can make your code more readable, maintainable, and reusable. A common way to structure Python scripts is to use functions to organize code into logical blocks.

These functions can be grouped together into modules, and modules can be organized into packages. Comments can be added to document the code and explain its purpose.

Additionally, it is good practice to use meaningful variable and function names, and to use consistent indentation and formatting.

It's also recommended to use docstrings and follow PEP8, the official Python style guide.

Additionally, you can use classes and objects to organize your code, it will help you to encapsulate different aspects of your program and make it more modular.

Here is an example

import os
import pandas as pd

def read_data(file_path):
    Reads data from a CSV file and returns a pandas DataFrame.
    :param file_path: The file path of the CSV file.
    :return: The pandas DataFrame.
    if not os.path.exists(file_path):
        raise ValueError("File does not exist: {}".format(file_path))
    return pd.read_csv(file_path)

def preprocess_data(df):
    Preprocesses the data by removing missing values and converting certain columns to appropriate data types.
    :param df: The pandas DataFrame.
    :return: The preprocessed pandas DataFrame.
    df = df.dropna()
    df["timestamp"] = pd.to_datetime(df["timestamp"])
    df["value"] = df["value"].astype(float)
    return df

def analyze_data(df):
    Analyzes the data by calculating summary statistics and creating visualizations.
    :param df: The pandas DataFrame.
    :return: None
    df.plot(x="timestamp", y="value")

if __name__ == "__main__":
    file_path = "data.csv"
    df = read_data(file_path)
    df = preprocess_data(df)

This script is well-structured because it:

  • Uses functions to organize code into logical blocks
  • Has docstrings to explain the purpose of each function
  • Uses meaningful variable and function names
  • Follows PEP8, the official Python style guide
  • Uses consistent indentation and formatting
  • Uses classes and objects to organize the code, it encapsulate different aspects of the program and make it more modular
  • Uses if __name__ == "__main__": to define the entry point of the script
  • Has clear distinction between the different parts of the script, data reading, preprocessing and analyzing.